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Applied Science and Engineering
Cost Analysis and Budgeting
Benchmarking and Performance Criteria
Thousands of workers suffer every year from hearing loss due to high workplace noise levels. The good news is that this is preventable. OSHA says exposure to an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) sound level of 85 decibels (dBA) or more can cause hearing damage. Most work-related hearing loss can be eliminated by reducing employee exposure to below this level.
It is well known that construction work is dangerous.
Construction employment is only 5% of the total
workforce, yet has 15% to 22% of the total workforce
fatalities (Mroszczyk, 2015a). While the construction
industry and government agencies have made progress
in reducing construction incidents,
construction remains a risky place
to work. Understanding the nature
of construction incidents is important
so that further improvements in
safety can be realized.
•As indicated in the prevention through
design (PTD) hierarchy of controls model,
the most effective means of preventing and
controlling occupational injuries, illnesses
and fatalities in construction is to avoid,
eliminate or minimize hazards and risks
early in the planning and design process.
•Applying PTD concepts in the construction
process in both the system’s physical
design and the means and methods
of executing the construction tasks are
vital in eliminating and reducing risk to
constructors and users.
•Despite the recent attention given to PTD
in construction, many promising control
technologies have not been transferred
from research into practice.
Improving job site safety, responding to emergencies, and analyzing incidents
after the fact are enhanced when worker location can be monitored and recorded
throughout a project.
•The construction industry continues to rank as one of the most hazardous work
environments, experiencing a high number of workplace injuries and fatalities.
•Safety performance improvement is needed to achieve zero injuries, illnesses and fatalities on construction sites. One systematic method of achieving this improvement is through
the collection and analysis of safety data such as near-hits.
•This article highlights best practices for collecting and analyzing near-hit information. A near-hit management program for assessing collected data is created so that lessons learned from reported
events can be applied to mitigate future hazards on construction sites.
OSHA staff members are often asked, “Why do standards take so long?” In fact, as the
saying goes, if I had a few dollars for each time I have been asked this question, I would be rich.
OSHA is a complex agency involved in various types of work. OSHA staff inspect workplaces;
set enforcement policy; issue guidance; maintain current web pages; develop and deliver
training; administer voluntary programs such as partnerships, alliances and the Voluntary
Protection Programs; conduct oversight of state OSHA programs, consultation agencies and
education centers; and manage and administer in the federal government bureaucracy. The main reason that OSHA standards take so long is because the regulatory process is designed to be slow
The keys to conducting an effective safety inspections are to know
the goals, identify who should perform the inspection and what
tools to use, understand how to find hazards and make sure to complete
all of the follow-up procedures
Workers falling from elevations is the primary cause of fatalities in the U.S. construction
industry. The focus of this paper is on using guardrails to prevent workers from falling from elevated
workplaces in residential construction.
Construction safety leaders are responsible for the development of safety professionals that they
supervise. No matter what the source or the qualifications and experience of a staff member,
improvement of their skills should always be emphasized and the
resources allocated to make them more
effective. College degrees and
certifications are becoming ever more the standard among construction
Yet there is ample opportunity for zealous and dedicated craft workers to progress to
positions of responsibility as safety managers on construction projects and
then further to
Prevention through design (PTD), or design for construction safety, is the concept of protecting construction workers addressing safety in the design process. PTD is the most effective way of eliminating construction hazards. It represents the highest level of the hierarchy of controls
The Body of Knowledge project is dedicated to creating a living reference that represents the collective knowledge of the Safety, Health and Environmental profession. While the preliminary work has begun, there is still more to do. The purpose of this website is to introduce subject areas that will eventually be part of the Body of Knowledge, and to gather feedback on the future direction, and ongoing assessment of what needs to be completed.
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