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Smart Trigger: Development of a System to Improve Nail Gun Safety, Mark L. Nagurka, Richard W. Marklin Jr. and Nathaniel R. Larson

Accidental discharge of a fastener from a pneumatic nail gun can result in acute injury to construction workers or consumers. Such injuries most commonly impale the hands, arms and legs. A smart trigger system can reduce the risk of acute injuries by detecting whether the surface is an intended substrate for fastening. This article details the development of a smart trigger system, including testing methodology and results.

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Electric Arc: Protecting Against Thermal Effect (Part 1: Types of Electric Arc), Mikhail Golovkov, Holger Schau and Gavin Burdge

This series of three articles provides a broad overview of today’s state of the art for protecting electrical workers against electric arc thermal hazard. Part 1 addresses key factors for further electric arc PPE advancement. It also discusses the different types of electric arc and why this knowledge is important for safety professionals who perform arc risk assessments.

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OSH Certifications: Behind the Exams, Cheryl L. (Cheri) Marcham, Treasa M. Turnbeaugh and Nicola J. Wright

The process of developing and scoring a certification exam is complicated and uses a scientific and mathematic psychometric process to achieve defendable outcomes. How much of the process is well understood by either the general public, employers or even safety and health professionals? This article presents information intended to help OSH professionals understand why and how a properly developed and administered certification exam shows the mark of excellence in the field of safety and health.

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Effiacy of Third Party Certification and Safety Initiatives , Michael S. Landa and Bridgette M. Hester

The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of climbing safety and rescue/competent person certification and two NATE safety initiatives using Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (OII), and Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) records to see if there is any empirical evidence suggesting that climbing safety and rescue/competent person certification or safety initiatives have resulted in decreased numbers of workplace injuries, illnesses, and fatalities.

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Prevention Through Design: For Hazards in Construction, Bruce K. Lyon, Georgi Popov and Elyce Biddle

•As indicated in the prevention through design (PTD) hierarchy of controls model, the most effective means of preventing and controlling occupational injuries, illnesses and fatalities in construction is to avoid, eliminate or minimize hazards and risks early in the planning and design process. •Applying PTD concepts in the construction process in both the system’s physical design and the means and methods of executing the construction tasks are vital in eliminating and reducing risk to constructors and users. •Despite the recent attention given to PTD in construction, many promising control technologies have not been transferred from research into practice.

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ATV Overturn, Melvin L. Myers

All-terrain vehicle crashes have killed more than 10,000 and injured hundreds of thousands of riders since 1985; most were related to overturns. •Behavior-based interventions have been implemented over decades reaching their limit of success. •As with tractors, engineering controls have the potential to mitigate or prevent most of these fatal and nonfatal injuries. •In this regard, much controversy has surrounded a single potentially effective crush prevention device.

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Electrical Safety by Design & Maintenance, Dennis K. Neitzel

All who interact with industrial or commercial electrical power systems and equipment (e.g., owners, operators, installers, maintainers, outside service personnel, design consultants, manufacturers) must be concerned with electrical safety aspects of electrical installation design. Electrical safety must be an integral part of all designs, installations and maintenance of electrical systems and equipment.

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OSHA Standards Why Do They Take So Long?, Jim Maddux

OSHA staff members are often asked, “Why do standards take so long?” In fact, as the saying goes, if I had a few dollars for each time I have been asked this question, I would be rich. OSHA is a complex agency involved in various types of work. OSHA staff inspect workplaces; set enforcement policy; issue guidance; maintain current web pages; develop and deliver training; administer voluntary programs such as partnerships, alliances and the Voluntary Protection Programs; conduct oversight of state OSHA programs, consultation agencies and education centers; and manage and administer in the federal government bureaucracy. The main reason that OSHA standards take so long is because the regulatory process is designed to be slow and deliberate.

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Designer’s Liability, Ali A. Karakhan

Design professionals can be held liable for construction safety even though they do not show authority, demonstrate control or are not contractually obligated to address safety. •Implementing prevention through design (PTD) on construction projects could help eliminate hazards associated with construction activities. •Implementing PTD not only reduces construction incidents, but also yields great benefits for project parties relative to schedule, morale, constructability, cost and quality.

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Prevention Through Design in Construction Engineering, Ali A. Karakhan

Prevention through design (PTD), or design for construction safety, is the concept of protecting construction workers addressing safety in the design process. PTD is the most effective way of eliminating construction hazards. It represents the highest level of the hierarchy of controls

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